# Instrument Characteristics Questions and Answers

Instrumentation engineers test your instrument characteristics knowledge with our multiple-choice questions and answers. Understanding the sensor characteristics is crucial to operating and maintaining instruments.

## Instrument Characteristics Questions

In this article, we will provide multiple-choice questions and answers covering various instrument characteristics such as reproducibility, drift, precision, conformity, dynamic and static characteristics, and more. Whether you’re preparing for an exam or just want to test your knowledge, these questions will help you deepen your understanding of instrument characteristics.

## What is the resolution of an instrument?

a) The smallest value that can be measured by the instrument.
b) The difference between the maximum and minimum values that can be measured by the instrument.
c) The time taken by the instrument to respond to a change in the input signal.
d) The accuracy of the instrument in measuring a signal.

Explanation: Resolution is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the smallest value that can be measured by the instrument. It is usually expressed in terms of the number of digits or decimal places of the measurement.

## What is the accuracy of an instrument?

a) The smallest value that can be measured by the instrument.
b) The difference between the maximum and minimum values that can be measured by the instrument.
c) The time taken by the instrument to respond to a change in the input signal.
d) The degree of closeness of the measured value to the true value of the signal.

Explanation: Accuracy is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the degree of closeness of the measured value to the true value of the signal being measured. It is usually expressed as a percentage or a range of values.

## What is the range of an instrument?

a) The smallest value that can be measured by the instrument.
b) The difference between the maximum and minimum values that can be measured by the instrument.
c) The time taken by the instrument to respond to a change in the input signal.
d) The sensitivity of the instrument in measuring small changes in the input signal.

Explanation: Range is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the difference between the maximum and minimum values that can be measured by the instrument. It is usually expressed in terms of a scale or a range of values.

## What is the linearity of an instrument?

a) The ability of the instrument to measure a wide range of values.
b) The ability of the instrument to measure small changes in the input signal.
c) The ability of the instrument to give consistent results over a range of values.
d) The ability of the instrument to measure signals accurately in the presence of noise.

Explanation: Linearity is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the ability of the instrument to give consistent results over a range of values. In other words, the instrument’s output should be directly proportional to the input signal over the entire range of measurement.

## What is the sensitivity of an instrument?

a) The smallest value that can be measured by the instrument.
b) The difference between the maximum and minimum values that can be measured by the instrument.
c) The time taken by the instrument to respond to a change in the input signal.
d) The degree of change in the output signal for a given change in the input signal.

Explanation: Sensitivity is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the degree of change in the output signal for a given change in the input signal. It is usually expressed in terms of a gain or amplification factor.

## What is hysteresis in an instrument?

a) The difference between the maximum and minimum values that can be measured by the instrument.
b) The degree of change in the output signal for a given change in the input signal.
c) The tendency of an instrument to give different readings for the same input signal when approached from different directions.
d) The degree of closeness of the measured value to the true value of the signal.

Explanation: Hysteresis is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the tendency of the instrument to give different readings for the same input signal when approached from different directions. This can occur due to changes in the material properties of the instrument or due to the presence of internal friction.

## What is drift in an instrument?

a) The difference between the maximum and minimum values that can be measured by the instrument.
b) The degree of change in the output signal for a given change in the input signal.
c) The tendency of an instrument to give different readings for the same input signal when approached from different directions.
d) The change in the instrument’s output signal over time when the input signal is constant.

Explanation: Drift is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the change in the instrument’s output signal over time when the input signal is constant. This can occur due to changes in temperature, aging of components, or changes in the environment in which the instrument is used.

## What is noise in an instrument?

a) The smallest value that can be measured by the instrument.
b) The difference between the maximum and minimum values that can be measured by the instrument.
c) The unwanted fluctuations or disturbances in the measured signal.
d) The degree of change in the output signal for a given change in the input signal.

Explanation: Noise is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the unwanted fluctuations or disturbances in the measured signal. This can occur due to external interference, internal noise sources, or the inherent limitations of the instrument itself.

## What is the response time of an instrument?

a) The smallest value that can be measured by the instrument.
b) The difference between the maximum and minimum values that can be measured by the instrument.
c) The time taken by the instrument to respond to a change in the input signal.
d) The accuracy of the instrument in measuring a signal.

Explanation: Response time is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the time taken by the instrument to respond to a change in the input signal. This can vary depending on the type of instrument and the complexity of the signal being measured.

## What is the repeatability of an instrument?

a) The ability of the instrument to give consistent results over a range of values.
b) The ability of the instrument to measure small changes in the input signal.
c) The ability of the instrument to measure signals accurately in the presence of noise.
d) The degree of closeness of the measured value to the true value of the signal.

Explanation: Repeatability is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the ability of the instrument to give consistent results over a range of values. This is important for ensuring the reliability of the instrument’s measurements over time.

## What is sensitivity in an instrument?

a) The smallest value that can be measured by the instrument.
b) The degree of change in the output signal for a given change in the input signal.
c) The accuracy of the instrument in measuring a signal.
d) The ability of the instrument to measure small changes in the input signal.

Explanation: Sensitivity is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the degree of change in the output signal for a given change in the input signal. This is important for ensuring that the instrument is able to detect small changes in the input signal and measure them accurately.

## What is accuracy in an instrument?

a) The smallest value that can be measured by the instrument.
b) The degree of change in the output signal for a given change in the input signal.
c) The ability of the instrument to measure signals accurately in the presence of noise.
d) The degree of closeness of the measured value to the true value of the signal.

Explanation: Accuracy is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the degree of closeness of the measured value to the true value of the signal. This is important for ensuring that the instrument provides reliable and trustworthy measurements.

## What is reproducibility in an instrument?

a) The ability of the instrument to measure small changes in the input signal.
b) The ability of the instrument to consistently reproduce the same results under the same conditions.
c) The ability of the instrument to measure signals accurately in the presence of noise.
d) The degree of closeness of the measured value to the true value of the signal.

Explanation: Reproducibility is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the ability of the instrument to consistently reproduce the same results under the same conditions. This is important for ensuring that the instrument is reliable and consistent in its measurements.

## What is repeatability in an instrument?

a) The ability of the instrument to measure small changes in the input signal.
b) The ability of the instrument to consistently reproduce the same results under different conditions.
c) The ability of the instrument to measure signals accurately in the presence of noise.
d) The degree of closeness of the measured value to the true value of the signal.

Explanation: Repeatability is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the ability of the instrument to measure small changes in the input signal. This is important for ensuring that the instrument is able to detect and measure small changes in the input signal accurately and consistently.

## What is precision in an instrument?

a) The ability of the instrument to measure small changes in the input signal.
b) The degree of closeness of the measured value to the true value of the signal.
c) The consistency of the instrument in reproducing the same results under the same conditions.
d) The ability of the instrument to measure signals accurately in the presence of noise.

Explanation: Precision is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the consistency of the instrument in reproducing the same results under the same conditions. This is important for ensuring that the instrument is reliable and consistent in its measurements.

## What is conformity in an instrument?

a) The ability of the instrument to measure small changes in the input signal.
b) The degree of closeness of the measured value to the true value of the signal.
c) The ability of the instrument to meet established standards and regulations.
d) The consistency of the instrument in reproducing the same results under the same conditions.

Explanation: Conformity is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the ability of the instrument to meet established standards and regulations. This is important for ensuring that the instrument meets the required specifications and can be used for its intended purpose.

## What is zero drift in an instrument?

a) The tendency of the instrument to produce inconsistent results over time.
b) The ability of the instrument to measure small changes in the input signal.
c) The change in the instrument’s output signal over time when the input signal is zero.
d) The degree of closeness of the measured value to the true value of the signal.

Explanation: Zero drift is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the change in the instrument’s output signal over time when the input signal is zero. This can be caused by factors such as aging components or changes in temperature or humidity and can affect the accuracy of the instrument’s measurements.

## What is span drift in an instrument?

a) The ability of the instrument to measure small changes in the input signal.
b) The change in the instrument’s output signal over time when the input signal is at the full-scale range.
c) The tendency of the instrument to produce inconsistent results over time.
d) The degree of closeness of the measured value to the true value of the signal.

Explanation: Span drift is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the change in the instrument’s output signal over time when the input signal is at the full-scale range. This can also be caused by factors such as aging components or changes in temperature or humidity and can affect the accuracy of the instrument’s measurements.

## What is zonal drift in an instrument?

a) The difference between the actual and measured values of the signal.
b) The change in the instrument’s output signal over time when the input signal is at a specific zone of the range.
c) The ability of the instrument to measure small changes in the input signal.
d) The degree of closeness of the measured value to the true value of the signal.

Explanation: Zonal drift is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the change in the instrument’s output signal over time when the input signal is at a specific zone of the range. This can occur due to non-linearity in the instrument’s response, or due to the instrument’s response being affected by the signal’s magnitude.

## What is stability in an instrument?

a) The ability of the instrument to measure small changes in the input signal.
b) The tendency of the instrument to produce inconsistent results over time.
c) The degree of closeness of the measured value to the true value of the signal.
d) The ratio of the change in the instrument’s output signal to the change in the input signal.

Explanation: Stability is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the tendency of the instrument to produce inconsistent results over time. This can be caused by factors such as changes in temperature or humidity, or aging components in the instrument.

## What is a dynamic error in an instrument?

a) The ability of the instrument to measure small changes in the input signal.
b) The difference between the actual and measured values of the signal.
c) The tendency of the instrument to produce inconsistent results over time.
d) The error in the instrument’s response to a changing input signal.

Explanation: Dynamic error is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the error in the instrument’s response to a changing input signal. This can be caused by factors such as the instrument’s speed of response or its measuring lag and can affect the accuracy of the instrument’s measurements.

## What is fidelity in an instrument?

a) The ability of the instrument to measure small changes in the input signal.
b) The degree of closeness of the measured value to the true value of the signal.
c) The tendency of the instrument to produce inconsistent results over time.
d) The ratio of the change in the instrument’s output signal to the change in the input signal.

Explanation: Fidelity is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the degree of closeness of the measured value to the true value of the signal. This is important for ensuring that the instrument provides accurate and reliable measurements.

## What is measuring lag in an instrument?

a) The difference between the actual and measured values of the signal.
b) The ability of the instrument to measure small changes in the input signal.
c) The time delay between the input signal and the instrument’s response.
d) The ratio of the change in the instrument’s output signal to the change in the input signal.

Explanation: Measuring lag is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the time delay between the input signal and the instrument’s response. This can be caused by factors such as the instrument’s speed of response and can affect the accuracy of the instrument’s measurements.

## What is the speed of response in an instrument?

a) The ability of the instrument to measure small changes in the input signal.
b) The degree of closeness of the measured value to the true value of the signal.
c) The time taken by the instrument to respond to a changing input signal.
d) The ratio of the change in the instrument’s output signal to the change in the input signal.

Explanation: Speed of response is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the time taken by the instrument to respond to a changing input signal. This is important for ensuring that the instrument can accurately measure rapidly changing signals.

## What is the time delay lag in an instrument?

a) The degree of closeness of the measured value to the true value of the signal.
b) The time taken by the instrument to respond to a changing input signal.
c) The tendency of the instrument to produce inconsistent results over time.
d) The time delay between the input signal and the instrument’s response.

Explanation: Time delay lag is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the time delay between the input signal and the instrument’s response. This can be caused by factors such as the instrument’s measuring lag, and can affect the accuracy of the instrument’s measurements.

## What is dynamic error in an instrument?

a) The error in the instrument’s response to a changing input signal.
b) The difference between the actual and measured values of the signal.
c) The degree of closeness of the measured value to the true value of the signal.
d) The ratio of the change in the instrument’s output signal to the change in the input signal.

Explanation: Dynamic error is a characteristic of an instrument that refers to the error in the instrument’s response to a changing input signal. This can be caused by factors such as the instrument’s speed of response or its measuring lag, and can affect the accuracy of the instrument’s measurements.

## What are dynamic characteristics in an instrument?

a) Characteristics of an instrument that describe its response to a changing input signal.
b) Characteristics of an instrument that describe its response to a constant input signal.
c) Characteristics of an instrument that describe its sensitivity to small changes in the input signal.
d) Characteristics of an instrument that describe its ability to accurately measure signals within a specific range.

Explanation: Dynamic characteristics are the characteristics of an instrument that describe its response to a changing input signal, including its speed of response, time delay lag, dynamic error, and measuring lag.

## What are static characteristics in an instrument?

a) Characteristics of an instrument that describe its response to a changing input signal.
b) Characteristics of an instrument that describe its response to a constant input signal.
c) Characteristics of an instrument that describe its sensitivity to small changes in the input signal.
d) Characteristics of an instrument that describe its ability to accurately measure signals within a specific range.

Explanation: Static characteristics are the characteristics of an instrument that describe its response to a constant input signal, including its accuracy, precision, linearity, and hysteresis.

## What is the threshold of an instrument?

a) The smallest signal that the instrument can measure accurately.
b) The largest signal that the instrument can measure accurately.
c) The range of signals that the instrument can measure accurately.
d) The time it takes for the instrument to respond to a change in the input signal.

Explanation: The threshold of an instrument is the smallest signal that the instrument can measure accurately. Any signal below the threshold may not be detected by the instrument.

## What is tolerance in an instrument?

a) The difference between the measured value and the true value of the signal.
b) The range of signals that the instrument can measure accurately.
c) The difference between the upper and lower limits of the instrument’s measurement range.
d) The time it takes for the instrument to respond to a change in the input signal.

Explanation: Tolerance in an instrument is the difference between the upper and lower limits of the instrument’s measurement range. It represents the maximum allowable deviation from the true value that the instrument can tolerate.

## What is span in an instrument?

a) The difference between the upper and lower limits of the instrument’s measurement range.
b) The smallest signal that the instrument can measure accurately.
c) The largest signal that the instrument can measure accurately.
d) The range of signals that the instrument can measure accurately.

Explanation: Span in an instrument is the difference between the upper and lower limits of the instrument’s measurement range. It represents the range of signals that the instrument is designed to measure.

## What is error in an instrument?

a) The difference between the measured value and the true value of the signal.
b) The range of signals that the instrument can measure accurately.
c) The difference between the upper and lower limits of the instrument’s measurement range.
d) The time it takes for the instrument to respond to a change in the input signal.

Explanation: Error in an instrument is the difference between the measured value and the true value of the signal. It can be caused by factors such as calibration errors, temperature changes, or mechanical wear.

## How is accuracy related to error in an instrument?

a) Accuracy is the inverse of error in an instrument.
b) Accuracy is the sum of all errors in an instrument.
c) Accuracy is the degree to which an instrument measures the true value of a signal, while error is the difference between the measured value and the true value.
d) Accuracy is the ability of an instrument to measure small signals, while error is the ability of an instrument to measure large signals.

Explanation: Accuracy is the degree to which an instrument measures the true value of a signal, while error is the difference between the measured value and the true value. High accuracy means low error, while low accuracy means high error.